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Lynching USA: photos and tales of when blacks were always the usual suspects

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Even after the abolition of slavery in 1865, America’s blacks were trapped.

Nothing was equal. Whites had. Blacks had not.

No more vivid picture of the murderous racism that lay in the USA’s heart is there than blacks being lynched by white mobs.

These were no secret killing. Sometimes thousands would turn up to watch the murders.

These were not neat executions. The black victim was routinely trourtured, kept alive until the body could stand no more.

Murder was celebrated in postcards. These were ‘I was there’ moments.

 

Postcard depicting the lynching of Lige Daniels, Center, Texas, USA, August 3, 1920. The back reads, "This was made in the court yard in Center, Texas. He is a 16 year old Black boy. He killed Earl's grandma. She was Florence's mother. Give this to Bud. From Aunt Myrtle."

Postcard depicting the lynching of Lige Daniels, Center, Texas, USA, August 3, 1920. The back reads, “This was made in the court yard in Center, Texas. He is a 16 year old Black boy. He killed Earl’s grandma. She was Florence’s mother. Give this to Bud. From Aunt Myrtle.”

 

 

Should we couch these crimes in their time? Not all victims of summary justice were black. The perpetrators were, however, always white:

…in 1933 in San Jose, Calif., such an act of violence drew applause from the state’s highest officials. In fact, to hear the governor talk about it, he’d have pinned medals on the chest of each and every member of the bloodthirsty mob, if anyone had made much of an effort to find them.

The case was the murder of Brooke Hart, the handsome, affable 22-year-old scion of a department-store empire. It was the depths of the Great Depression; Hart had money, others did not. And that made him a target.

Hart’s workday on Thursday, Nov. 9, 1933, had been routine. At around 6 p.m. he left the store that was owned by his millionaire father, and picked up his green Studebaker from a nearby garage. The night was going to be a busy one. First, he was to drive his father, Alex Hart, 64, to a Chamber of Commerce meeting, and then he was to drop his sister, Aleese, 18, off at home. By 6:30, he was expected at a public speaking lesson.

He never showed up.

Nearly four hours after Brooke’s disappearance, the phone rang at the Hart mansion. A male voice said that Hart was safe, demanded a $40,000 (roughly $660,000 today) ransom, and warned the family to keep the police out of it. But it was too late for secrecy.

Search parties, including dozens of his father’s employees, fanned out all over the county.

By the following day a clue had emerged; Hart’s Studebaker roadster, abandoned with its lights on, was spotted on the road between San Jose and Oakland.

Three days later, a ransom note arrived. It warned that “one more peep to police” would mean death for Brooke.

Two white men were arrested:

After a night of questioning, the suspect revealed his name, Thomas Thurmond, identified his accomplice, John Holmes, and offered an account of the horrifying last scene of his victim’s life.

Thurmond and Holmes, an unemployed oil worker, friends for about a year, had hatched the kidnapping scheme about six weeks earlier. On the evening of Nov. 9, as Hart steered his roadster out of the driveway to the garage, Holmes flagged him down, then pointed a gun at the driver and forced his way into the car. Thurmond was following behind in Holmes’ car.

Holmes drove Hart about 7 miles from San Jose, where they abandoned the Studebaker, transferred their captive to the second car, and drove to the San Mateo bridge. Holmes ordered Hart to get out of the car, and hit him over the head with a brick. The pair bound the stunned man’s arms and legs with bailing wire, weighted him down with concrete blocks, and tossed him into the bay…

A mob, estimated to be about 5,000 strong, clogged the streets before the jailhouse. Police fired tear gas but it just made the mob madder, as a group of men battered down the jailhouse door with a steel pipe and trampled the sheriff. They quickly found Thurmond and Holmes, dragged the prisoners across the street to St. James Park, and hanged them from the nearest tree, to wild cheers. Some people milled about for hours, snatching grisly souvenirs.

“The mob seemed to be insane,” one officer told The Associated Press. “The tear gas never fazed them.”

It was an act of savage mass hysteria, no one could deny that, but even more shocking was the response from California Gov. James Rolph.

He called the lynching “a fine lesson to the whole nation.”

“They’ll learn that they can’t kidnap in this state,” Rolph said in a statement. “If anyone is arrested for the good job, I’ll pardon them all.”

Lynching were a part of the US way of life, as Robert L. Zangrando writes:

Vigilantism, or summary justice, has a long history, but the term lynch law originated during the American Revolution with Col. Charles Lynch and his Virginia associates, who responded to unsettled times by making their own rules for confronting Tories and criminal elements. “Lynching” found an easy acceptance as the nation expanded. Raw frontier conditions encouraged swift punishment for real, imagined, or anticipated criminal behavior. Historically, social control has been an essential aspect of mob rule.

Opponents of slavery in pre-Civil War America and cattle rustlers, gamblers, horse thieves, and other “desperadoes” in the South and Old West were nineteenth-century targets. From the 1880s onward, however, mob violence increasingly reflected white America’s contempt for various racial, ethnic, and cultural groups. African-Americans especially, and sometimes Native Americans, Latinos, Jews, Asian immigrants, and European newcomers, felt the mob’s fury. In an era when racist theories prompted “true Americans” to assert their imagined superiority through imperialist ventures, mob violence became the domestic means of asserting white dominance. Occasionally, this complemented the profit motive, when the lynching of a successful black farmer or immigrant merchant opened new economic opportunities for local whites and simultaneously reaffirmed everyone’s “place” in the social hierarchy. Sometimes lynching was aimed at unpopular ideas: labor union organizers, political radicals, critics of America’s role in World War I, and civil rights advocates were targets.

African-Americans suffered grievously under lynch law. With the close of Reconstruction in the late 1870s, southern whites were determined to end northern and black participation in the region’s affairs, and northerners exhibited a growing indifference toward the civil rights of black Americans. Taking its cue from this intersectional white harmony, the federal government abandoned its oversight of constitutional protections. Southern and border states responded with the Jim Crow laws of the 1890s, and white mobs flourished. With blacks barred from voting, public office, and jury service, officials felt no obligation to respect minority interests or safeguard minority lives. In addition to lynchings of individuals, dozens of race riots–with blacks as victims–scarred the national landscape from Wilmington, North Carolina, in 1898 to Tulsa, Oklahoma, in 1921.

Between 1882 (when reliable statistics were first collected) and 1968 (when the classic forms of lynching had disappeared), 4,743 persons died of lynching, 3,446 of them black men and women. Mississippi (539 black victims, 42 white) led this grim parade of death, followed by Georgia (492, 39), Texas (352, 141), Louisiana (335, 56), and Alabama (299, 48). From 1882 to 1901, the annual number nationally usually exceeded 100; 1892 had a record 230 deaths (161 black, 69 white). Although lynchings declined somewhat in the twentieth century, there were still 97 in 1908 (89 black, 8 white), 83 in the racially troubled postwar year of 1919 (76, 7, plus some 25 race riots), 30 in 1926 (23, 7), and 28 in 1933 (24, 4).

Statistics do not tell the entire story, however. These were recorded lynchings; others were never reported beyond the community involved. Furthermore, mobs used especially sadistic tactics when blacks were the prime targets. By the 1890s lynchers increasingly employed burning, torture, and dismemberment to prolong suffering and excite a “festive atmosphere” among the killers and onlookers. White families brought small children to watch, newspapers sometimes carried advance notices, railroad agents sold excursion tickets to announced lynching sites, and mobs cut off black victims’ fingers, toes, ears, or genitalia as souvenirs. Nor was it necessarily the handiwork of a local rabble; not infrequently, the mob was encouraged or led by people prominent in the area’s political and business circles. Lynching had become a ritual of interracial social control and recreation rather than simply a punishment for crime.

So. What could get you lynched?

Answer: whatever the whites decided.

 

Via

Via

 

 

The photos hereunder are occassional brutal. They show the horror we should not flinch from showing and vowing not to forget.

They show the innocent, like Emmett Till.

In the summer of 1955, the 14-year-old Till was far from home when his life ended in a most violent way, apparently for whistling at a white woman.

Dragged from his bed at his uncle’s home in a small Mississippi town, he was beaten so badly that his face was unrecognisable when the corpse was recovered from the river three days later. He had been shot in the head and his body tied to a 70lb (32kg) fan.

The two men known locally to have carried out the attack were acquitted of murder. The following year, they admitted responsibility in a magazine interview, but said they had done nothing wrong.

Till was the first martyr of the movement and he became the face of it,

Till’s killers Roy Bryant and J. W. Milam confessed to the crime in a 1956 edition of Look magazine:

Editors Note: In the long history of man’s inhumanity to man, racial conflict has produced some of the most horrible examples of brutality. The recent slaying of Emmett Till in Mississippi is a case in point. The editors of Look are convinced that they are presenting here, for the first time, the real story of that killing — the story no jury heard and no newspaper reader saw.

Disclosed here is the true account of the slaying in Mississippi of a Negro youth named Emmett Till.

Last September in Sumner, Miss., a petit jury found the youth’s admitted abductors not guilty of murder. In November, in Greenwood, a grand jury declined to indict them for kidnapping.

Of the murder trial, the Memphis Commercial Appeal said: “Evidence necessary for convicting on a murder charge was lacking.” But with truth absent, hypocrisy and myth have flourished. Now, hypocrisy can be exposed; myth dispelled. Here are the facts.

Carolyn Holloway Bryant is 21, five feet tall, weighs 103 pounds. An Irish girl, with black hair and black eyes, she is a small farmer’s daughter who, at 17, quit high school at Indianola, Miss., to marry a soldier, Roy Bryant, then 20, now 24.The couple have two boys, three and two; and they operate a store at a dusty crossroads called Money: post office, filling station and three stores clustered around a school and a gin, and set in the vast, lonely cotton patch that is the Mississippi Delta.

Carolyn and Roy Bryant are poor: no car, no TV. They live in the back of the store which Roy’s brothers helped set up when he got out of the 82nd Airborne in 1953. They sell “snuff-and-fatback” to Negro field hands on credit: and they earn little because, for one reason, the government has been giving the Negroes food they formerly bought.

Carolyn and Roy Bryant’s social life is visits to their families, to the Baptist church, and, whenever they can borrow a car, to a drive-in, with the kids sleeping in the back seat. They call Shane the best picture they ever saw.

For extra money, Carolyn tends store when Roy works outside — like truck driving for a brother. And he has many brothers. His mother had two husbands, 11 children. The first five — all boys — were “Milam children”; the next six — three boys, three girls — were “Bryant children.”

This is a lusty and devoted clan. They work, fight, vote and play as a family. The “half” in their fraternity is forgotten. For years, they have operated a chain of cottonfield stores, as well as trucks and mechanical cotton pickers. In relation to the Negroes, they are somewhat like white traders in portions of Africa today; and they are determined to resist the revolt of colored men against white rule.

On Wednesday evening, August 24, 1955, Roy was in Texas, on a brother’s truck. He had carted shrimp from New Orleans to San Antonio, proceeded to Brownsville. Carolyn was alone in the store. But back in the living quarters was her sister-in-law Juanita Milam, 27, with her two small sons and Carolyn’s two. The store was kept open till 9 on week nights, 11 on Saturday.

When her husband was away, Carolyn Bryant never slept in the store, never stayed there alone after dark. Moreover, in the Delta, no white woman ever travels country roads after dark unattended by a man.

This meant that during Roy’s absences — particularly since he had no car — there was family inconvenience. Each afternoon, a sister-in-law arrived to stay with Carolyn until closing time. Then, the two women, with their children, waited for a brother-in-law to convoy them to his home. Next morning, the sister-in-law drove Carolyn back.

Juanita Milam had driven from her home in Glendora. She had parked in front of the store to the left; and under the front seat of this car was Roy Bryant’s pistol, a .38 Colt automatic. Carolyn knew it was there. After 9, Juanita’s husband, J. W. Milam, would arrive in his pickup to shepherd them to his home for the night.About 7:30 pm, eight young Negroes — seven boys and a girl — in a ’46 Ford had stopped outside. They included sons, grandsons and a nephew of Moses (Preacher) Wright, 64, a ‘cropper. They were between 13 and 19 years old. Four were natives of the Delta and others, including the nephew, Emmett (Bobo) Till, were visiting from the Chicago area.

Bobo Till was 14 years old: born on July 25, 1941. He was stocky, muscular, weighing about 160, five feet four or five. Preacher later testified: “He looked like a man.”Bobo’s party joined a dozen other young Negroes, including two other girls, in front of the store. Bryant had built checkerboards there. Some were playing checkers, others were wrestling and “kiddin’ about girls.” Bobo bragged about his white girl. He showed the boys a picture of a white girl in his wallet; and to their jeers of disbelief, he boasted of success with her.

“You talkin’ mighty big, Bo,” one youth said. “There’s a pretty little white woman in the store. Since you know how to handle white girls, let’s see you go in and get a date with her?”

“You ain’t chicken, are yuh, Bo?” another youth taunted him.

Bobo had to fire or fall back. He entered the store, alone, stopped at the candy case. Carolyn was behind the counter; Bobo in front. He asked for two cents’ worth of bubble gum. She handed it to him. He squeezed her hand and said: “How about a date, baby?”

She jerked away and started for Juanita Milam. At the break between counters, Bobo jumped in front of her, perhaps caught her at the waist, and said: “You needn’t be afraid o’ me, Baby. I been with white girls before.”

ill's mother insisted on an open casket funeral. Images of Till's body, printed in The Chicago Defender and Jet magazine, made international news and directed attention to the rights of the blacks in the U.S. South.

Till’s mother insisted on an open casket funeral. Images of Till’s body, printed in The Chicago Defender and Jet magazine, made international news and directed attention to the rights of the blacks in the U.S. South.

 

At this point, a cousin ran in, grabbed Bobo and began pulling him out of the store. Carolyn now ran, not for Juanita, but out the front, and got the pistol from the Milam car. Outside, with Bobo being ushered off by his cousins, and with Carolyn getting the gun, Bobo executed the “wolf whistle” which gave the case its name.

That was the sum of the facts on which most newspaper readers based an opinion. The Negroes drove away; and Carolyn, shaken, told Juanita. The two women determined to keep the incident from their “Men-folks.” They didn’t tell J. W. Milam when he came to escort them home. By Thursday afternoon, Carolyn Bryant could see the story was getting around. She spent Thursday night at the Milams, where at 4 a.m. (Friday) Roy got back from Texas. Since he had slept little for five nights, he went to bed at the Milams’ while Carolyn returned to the store. During Friday afternoon, Roy reached the store, and shortly thereafter a Negro told him what “the talk” was, and told him that the “Chicago boy” was “visitin’ Preacher.” Carolyn then told Roy what had happened. Once Roy Bryant knew, in his environment, in the opinion of most white people around him, for him to have done nothing would have marked him for a coward and a fool. On Friday night, he couldn’t do anything. He and Carolyn were alone, and he had no car. Saturday was collection day, their busy day in the store. About 10:30 Saturday night, J. W. Milam drove by. Roy took him aside.

“I want you to come over early in the morning,” he said. “I need a little transportation.”

J.W. protested: “Sunday’s the only morning I can sleep. Can’t we make it around noon?”

Roy then told him.

“I’ll be there,” he said. “Early.”

J. W. drove to another brother’s store at Minter City, where he was working. He closed that store about 12:30 a.m., drove home to Glendora. Juanita was away, visiting her folks at Greenville. J. W. had been thinking. He decided not to go to bed. He pumped the pickup — a half-ton ’55 Chevrolet — full of gas and headed for Money.

J. W. “Big Milam” is 36: six feet two, 235 pounds; an extrovert. Short boots accentuate his height; khaki trousers; red sports shirt; sun helmet. Dark-visaged; his lower lip curls when he chuckles; and though bald, his remaining hair is jet-black.

He is slavery’s plantation overseer. Today, he rents Negro-driven mechanical cotton pickers to plantation owners. Those who know him say that he can handle Negroes better than anybody in the country.

Big Milam soldiered in the Patton manner. With a ninth-grade education, he was commissioned in battle by the 75th Division. He was an expert platoon leader, expert street fighter, expert in night patrol, expert with the “grease gun,” with every device for close range killing. A German bullet tore clear through his chest; his body bears “multiple shrapnel wounds.” Of his medals, he cherishes one: combat infantryman’s badge. Big Milam, like many soldiers, brought home his favorite gun: the .45 Colt automatic pistol.

“Best weapon the Army’s got,” he says. “Either for shootin’ or sluggin’.”

Two hours after Big Milam got the word — the instant minute he could close the store — he was looking for the Chicago Negro.

Big Milam reached Money a few minutes shy of 2 a.m., Sunday, August 28. The Bryants were asleep; the store was dark but for the all-night light. He rapped at the back door, and when Roy came, he said: “Let’s go. Let’s make that trip now.”

Roy dressed, brought a gun: this one was a .45 Colt. Both men were and remained — cold sober. Big Milam had drunk a beer at Minter City around 9; Roy had had nothing.

There was no moon as they drove to Preacher’s house: 2.8 miles east of Money.

Preacher’s house stands 50 feet right of the gravel road, with cedar and persimmon trees in the yard. Big Milam drove the pickup in under the trees. He was bareheaded, carrying a five-cell flashlight in his left hand, the .45 in the right. Roy Bryant pounded on the door.

Preacher: “Who’s that?”

Bryant: “Mr. Bryant from Money, Preacher.”

Preacher: “All right, sir. Just a minute.”

Preacher came out of the screened-in porch.

Bryant: “Preacher, you got a boy from Chicago here?”

Preacher: “Yessir.”

Bryant: “I want to talk to him.”

Preacher: “Yessir. I’ll get him.”

Preacher led them to a back bedroom where four youths were sleeping in two beds. In one was Bobo Till and Simeon Wright, Preacher’s youngest son. Bryant had told Preacher to turn on the lights; Preacher had said they were out of order.So only the flashlight was used. The visit was not a complete surprise. Preacher testified that he had heard of the “trouble,” that he “sho’ had” talked to his nephew about it. Bobo himself had been afraid; he had wanted to go home the day after the incident. The Negro girl in the party urged that he leave. “They’ll kill him,” she had warned. But Preacher’s wife, Elizabeth Wright, had decided that the danger was being magnified; she had urged Bobo to “finish yo’ visit.”

“I thought they might say something to him, but I didn’t think they’d kill a boy,” Preacher said.

Big Milam shined the light in Bobo’s face, said: “You the nigger who did the talking?”

“Yeah,” Bobo replied.

Milam: “Don’t say, ‘Yeah’ to me: I’ll blow your head off. Get your clothes on.”

Bobo had been sleeping in his shorts. He pulled on a shirt and trousers, then reached for his socks.

“Just the shoes,” Milam hurried him.

“I don’t wear shoes without socks,” Bobo said: and he kept the gun-bearers waiting while he put on his socks, then a pair of canvas shoes with thick crepe soles.

Preacher and his wife tried two arguments in the boy’s behalf.

“He ain’t got good sense,” Preacher begged. “He didn’t know what he was doing. Don’t take him.”

“I’ll pay you gentlemen for the damages,” Elizabeth Wright said.

“You niggers go back to sleep,” Milam replied.

They marched him into the yard, told him to get in the back of the pickup and lie down. He obeyed. They drove toward Money.

Elizabeth Wright rushed to the home of a white neighbor, who got up, looked around, but decided he could do nothing. Then, she and Preacher drove to the home of her brother, Crosby Smith, at Sumner; and Crosby Smith, on Sunday morning, went to the sheriff’s office at Greenwood. The other young Negroes stayed at Preacher’s house until daylight, when Wheeler Parker telephoned his mother in Chicago, who in turn notified Bobo’s mother, Mamie Bradley, 33, 6427 S. St. Lawrence. Had there been any doubt as to the identity of the “Chicago boy who done the talking,” Milam and Bryant would have stopped at the store for Carolyn to identify him. But there had been no denial. So they didn’t stop at the store. At Money, they crossed the Tallahatchie River and drove west. Their intention was to “just whip him… and scare some sense into him.” And for this chore, Big Milam knew “the scariest place in the Delta.” He had come upon it last year hunting wild geese. Over close to Rosedale, the Big River bends around under a bluff. “Brother, she’s a 100-foot sheer drop, and she’s a 100 feet deep after you hit.”

Big Milam’s idea was to stand him up there on that bluff, “whip” him with the .45, and then shine the light on down there toward that water and make him think you’re gonna knock him in. “Brother, if that won’t scare the Chicago ——-, hell won’t.”

Searching for this bluff, they drove close to 75 miles. Through Shellmound, Schlater, Doddsville, Ruleville, Cleveland to the intersection south of Rosedale. There they turned south on Mississippi No. 1, toward the entrance to Beulah Lake. They tried several dirt and gravel roads, drove along the levee. Finally, they gave up: in the darkness, Big Milam couldn’t find his bluff. They drove back to Milam’s house at Glendora, and by now it was 5 a.m.. They had been driving nearly three hours, with Milam and Bryant in the cab and Bobo lying in the back.

At some point when the truck slowed down, why hadn’t Bobo jumped and run? He wasn’t tied; nobody was holding him. A partial answer is that those Chevrolet pickups have a wraparound rear window the size of a windshield. Bryant could watch him. But the real answer is the remarkable part of the story.

Bobo wasn’t afraid of them! He was tough as they were. He didn’t think they had the guts to kill him.

Milam: “We were never able to scare him. They had just filled him so full of that poison that he was hopeless.”

Back of Milam’s home is a tool house, with two rooms each about 12 feet square. They took him in there and began “whipping” him, first Milam then Bryant smashing him across the head with those .45’s. Pistol-whipping: a court-martial offense in the Army… but MP’s have been known to do it…. And Milam got information out of German prisoners this way.

But under these blows Bobo never hollered — and he kept making the perfect speeches to insure martyrdom.

Bobo: “You bastards, I’m not afraid of you. I’m as good as you are. I’ve ‘had’ white women. My grandmother was a white woman.”

Milam: “Well, what else could we do? He was hopeless. I’m no bully; I never hurt a nigger in my life. I like niggers — in their place — I know how to work ’em. But I just decided it was time a few people got put on notice. As long as I live and can do anything about it, niggers are gonna stay in their place. Niggers ain’t gonna vote where I live. If they did, they’d control the government. They ain’t gonna go to school with my kids. And when a nigger gets close to mentioning sex with a white woman, he’s tired o’ livin’. I’m likely to kill him. Me and my folks fought for this country, and we got some rights. I stood there in that shed and listened to that nigger throw that poison at me, and I just made up my mind. ‘Chicago boy,’ I said, ‘I’m tired of ’em sending your kind down here to stir up trouble. Goddam you, I’m going to make an example of you — just so everybody can know how me and my folks stand.'”

So Big Milam decided to act. He needed a weight. He tried to think of where he could get an anvil. Then he remembered a gin which had installed new equipment. He had seen two men lifting a discarded fan, a metal fan three feet high and circular, used in ginning cotton.

Bobo wasn’t bleeding much. Pistol-whipping bruises more than it cuts. They ordered him back in the truck and headed west again. They passed through Doddsville, went into the Progressive Ginning Company. This gin is 3.4 miles east of Boyle: Boyle is two miles south of Cleveland. The road to this gin turns left off U.S. 61, after you cross the bayou bridge south of Boyle.

Milam: “When we got to that gin, it was daylight, and I was worried for the first time. Somebody might see us and accuse us of stealing the fan.”

Bryant and Big Milam stood aside while Bobo loaded the fan. Weight: 74 pounds. The youth still thought they were bluffing.

They drove back to Glendora, then north toward Swan Lake and crossed the “new bridge” over the Tallahatchie. At the east end of this bridge, they turned right, along a dirt road which parallels the river. After about two miles, they crossed the property of L.W. Boyce, passing near his house.

About 1.5 miles southeast of the Boyce home is a lonely spot where Big Milam has hunted squirrels. The river bank is steep. The truck stopped 30 yards from the water. Big Milam ordered Bobo to pick up the fan. He staggered under its weight… carried it to the river bank. They stood silently… just hating one another.

Milam: “Take off your clothes.”

Slowly, Bobo pulled off his shoes, his socks. He stood up, unbuttoned his shirt, dropped his pants, his shorts.

He stood there naked. It was Sunday morning, a little before 7.

Milam: “You still as good as I am?”

Bobo: “Yeah.”

Milam: “You still ‘had’ white women?”

Bobo: “Yeah.”

That big .45 jumped in Big Milam’s hand. The youth turned to catch that big, expanding bullet at his right ear. He dropped.

They barb-wired the gin fan to his neck, rolled him into 20 feet of water.

For three hours that morning, there was a fire in Big Milam’s back yard: Bobo’s crepe soled shoes were hard to burn.

Seventy-two hours later — eight miles downstream — boys were fishing. They saw feet sticking out of the water. Bobo.

The majority — by no means all, but the majority — of the white people in Mississippi 1) either approve Big Milam’s action or else 2) they don’t disapprove enough to risk giving their “enemies” the satisfaction of a conviction.

 

 

Tessie Earle, 38-year-old mother of Willie Earle, Greenville, South Carolina, lynch victim, appears at a press conference in New York, May 25, 1947. The National Negro Day Committee arranged and financed the trip for Mrs. Earle from Greenville to New York so that she could appear on May 27 in Madison Square Garden at a program sponsored by the committee. (AP Photo/Julian C. Wilson)

Tessie Earle, 38-year-old mother of Willie Earle, Greenville, South Carolina, lynch victim, appears at a press conference in New York, May 25, 1947. The National Negro Day Committee arranged and financed the trip for Mrs. Earle from Greenville to New York so that she could appear on May 27 in Madison Square Garden at a program sponsored by the committee. (AP Photo/Julian C. Wilson)

Here is shown a part of the crowd of 10,000 persons who jammed the courthouse square in the little town of Scottsboro, Alabama, April 6, 1933, on the opening of the trials of nine black youths accused of attacking two white girls near Sevenson, Ala., March 24, 1931. National Guardsmen with fixed bayonets patrolled the courthouse grounds, and women and minors were barred from the courtroom. The state asked for the death penalty for the first two defendants to be placed on trial. The other seven will be tried later. The nine were identified by the two girls as the ones who boarded the freight car in which they and seven white youths were riding, forced five of the white youths from the train, knocked the other two unconscious and attacked the girls.

Here is shown a part of the crowd of 10,000 persons who jammed the courthouse square in the little town of Scottsboro, Alabama, April 6, 1933, on the opening of the trials of nine black youths accused of attacking two white girls near Sevenson, Ala., March 24, 1931. National Guardsmen with fixed bayonets patrolled the courthouse grounds, and women and minors were barred from the courtroom. The state asked for the death penalty for the first two defendants to be placed on trial. The other seven will be tried later. The nine were identified by the two girls as the ones who boarded the freight car in which they and seven white youths were riding, forced five of the white youths from the train, knocked the other two unconscious and attacked the girls.

 

A cotton-gin fan is presented as evidence in the trial investigating the death of 14-year-old Chicago boy Emmett Louis Till, in Sumner, Miss., on September 22, 1955. The fan had been tied around the boy's neck with barbed wire when his body was found in the Tallahatchie River near the Delta community of Money, Mississippi, on August 31, 1955. (AP Photo)

A cotton-gin fan is presented as evidence in the trial investigating the death of 14-year-old Chicago boy Emmett Louis Till, in Sumner, Miss., on September 22, 1955. The fan had been tied around the boy’s neck with barbed wire when his body was found in the Tallahatchie River near the Delta community of Money, Mississippi, on August 31, 1955. (AP Photo)

 

This street scene in Poplarville, Miss., looks like it could be a copy of many Main Streets in many southern U.S. towns, shown June 3, 1959. But the community is troubled in the wake of the lynching of Charles Mack Parker, 23-year-old black man, who was dragged from jail April 24. He had been charged with raping a pregnant white woman. The general feeling among townspeople - at least what has been expressed - is the hope that authorities never catch the men who lynched Parker. This feeling was heightened during the FBI investigation of the case. (AP Photo)

This street scene in Poplarville, Miss., looks like it could be a copy of many Main Streets in many southern U.S. towns, shown June 3, 1959. But the community is troubled in the wake of the lynching of Charles Mack Parker, 23-year-old black man, who was dragged from jail April 24. He had been charged with raping a pregnant white woman. The general feeling among townspeople – at least what has been expressed – is the hope that authorities never catch the men who lynched Parker. This feeling was heightened during the FBI investigation of the case. (AP Photo)

The clog of debris in the Pearl River where the body of Mack Charles Parker was discovered, is pointed out by Al Wheat, 39-year-old fisherman, near Poplarville, Miss., May 5, 1959. Wheat, who aided the recovery of the body with his small boat, points to the outermost clump, at left. Swampy terrain made recovery by boat necessary. Parker's body was found about two miles south of a bridge connecting the highway between Bogalusa, La., and Poplarville. It was on the Mississippi side of the river which separates the states about 20 mile west of here. (AP Photo/Richard Tolbert)

The clog of debris in the Pearl River where the body of Mack Charles Parker was discovered, is pointed out by Al Wheat, 39-year-old fisherman, near Poplarville, Miss., May 5, 1959. Wheat, who aided the recovery of the body with his small boat, points to the outermost clump, at left. Swampy terrain made recovery by boat necessary. Parker’s body was found about two miles south of a bridge connecting the highway between Bogalusa, La., and Poplarville. It was on the Mississippi side of the river which separates the states about 20 mile west of here. (AP Photo/Richard Tolbert)

 

These 12 men were seated September 20, 1955 in the jury box to hear testimony and decide the fate of Roy Bryant and J.W. Milam, who are charged with slaying Emmett Louis Till. Left to right, in front row, are Gus Ramsey, James Toole, E.L. Price, J.A. Shaw, Jr., Ray Tribble, and Ed Devaney. Back row, Travis Thomas, George Holland, Jim Pennington, Davis Newton, Howard Armstrong, and Bishop Matthews. The alternate juror is not pictured. (AP Photo/stf)

These 12 men were seated September 20, 1955 in the jury box to hear testimony and decide the fate of Roy Bryant and J.W. Milam, who are charged with slaying Emmett Louis Till. Left to right, in front row, are Gus Ramsey, James Toole, E.L. Price, J.A. Shaw, Jr., Ray Tribble, and Ed Devaney. Back row, Travis Thomas, George Holland, Jim Pennington, Davis Newton, Howard Armstrong, and Bishop Matthews. The alternate juror is not pictured. (AP Photo/stf)

A six-member jury at a coroner's inquest into the lynch mob death of Mack Charles Parker, a 23-year-old African-American accused of rape, hears County Attorney William Steward, right, read the autopsy report, in Poplarville, Miss., May 5, 1959. Justice of the Peace Walter Davis, who conducted the hearing, sits left, foreground. Parker's body was found in the Pearl River yesterday. The jury ruled he died from "two high speed projectiles," probably bullet wounds, inflicted by an unknown person or persons. District Attorney Vernon Broom can be seen on the extreme left, with his back to the camera. (AP Photo/Richard Tolbert)

A six-member jury at a coroner’s inquest into the lynch mob death of Mack Charles Parker, a 23-year-old African-American accused of rape, hears County Attorney William Steward, right, read the autopsy report, in Poplarville, Miss., May 5, 1959. Justice of the Peace Walter Davis, who conducted the hearing, sits left, foreground. Parker’s body was found in the Pearl River yesterday. The jury ruled he died from “two high speed projectiles,” probably bullet wounds, inflicted by an unknown person or persons. District Attorney Vernon Broom can be seen on the extreme left, with his back to the camera. (AP Photo/Richard Tolbert)

Part of a dismissed jury panel, foreground, leaves Pearl River County circuit court after Judge Sebe Dale, still at bench, top left, excused them and condemned the abduction and lynching of Mack Charles Parker, 23, an African-American charged with raping a white woman, in Poplarville, Miss., April 27, 1959. Masked men removed him from jail on Saturday. Neither Parker, or his abductors have been found. Judge Dale canceled all cases until the May term. He said the abduction denied Parker a fair trial. (AP Photo/Richard Tolbert)

Part of a dismissed jury panel, foreground, leaves Pearl River County circuit court after Judge Sebe Dale, still at bench, top left, excused them and condemned the abduction and lynching of Mack Charles Parker, 23, an African-American charged with raping a white woman, in Poplarville, Miss., April 27, 1959. Masked men removed him from jail on Saturday. Neither Parker, or his abductors have been found. Judge Dale canceled all cases until the May term. He said the abduction denied Parker a fair trial. (AP Photo/Richard Tolbert)

A gravedigger delays the burial service for Mack Charles Parker, 23-year-old African-American man accused of rape, to widen the grave for the pine box, left, in Lumberton, Miss., May 5, 1959. Grief is written on the faces of relatives and friends of Parker, who was the victim of a lynch mob. Parker's body was retrieved from the Pearl River the previous day. About 100 African-Americans and 20 newsmen witnessed the burial. (AP photo/Richard Tolbert) 1959.

A gravedigger delays the burial service for Mack Charles Parker, 23-year-old African-American man accused of rape, to widen the grave for the pine box, left, in Lumberton, Miss., May 5, 1959. Grief is written on the faces of relatives and friends of Parker, who was the victim of a lynch mob. Parker’s body was retrieved from the Pearl River the previous day. About 100 African-Americans and 20 newsmen witnessed the burial. (AP photo/Richard Tolbert) 1959.

John Reyer, right, a 63-year-old local farmer,sits in the rear of an FBI car telling agents how he witnessed the abduction of Mack Charles Parker from his jail cell, in Poplarville, Miss., April 26, 1959. Reyer told them he saw four masked men throw an African-American man into the back seat of a car and drive off. Reyer had been visiting the hospital across the street. Parker was being held on the charge of raping a white woman. The trial was scheduled to start in two days. (AP Photo/Richard Tolbe

John Reyer, right, a 63-year-old local farmer,sits in the rear of an FBI car telling agents how he witnessed the abduction of Mack Charles Parker from his jail cell, in Poplarville, Miss., April 26, 1959. Reyer told them he saw four masked men throw an African-American man into the back seat of a car and drive off. Reyer had been visiting the hospital across the street. Parker was being held on the charge of raping a white woman. The trial was scheduled to start in two days. (AP Photo/Richard Tolbe

Roy Bryant, right, and his half-brother, J. W. Milam, second from right, walk down the steps of the Leflore County Courthouse in Greenwood, Miss., on Sept. 30, 1955, after being freed on bond in the kidnapping and murder of Emmett Till. Bryant and Milam eventually were acquitted of murdering the 14-year-old black youth in a trial which drew international attention that fall. (AP Photo)

Roy Bryant, right, and his half-brother, J. W. Milam, second from right, walk down the steps of the Leflore County Courthouse in Greenwood, Miss., on Sept. 30, 1955, after being freed on bond in the kidnapping and murder of Emmett Till. Bryant and Milam eventually were acquitted of murdering the 14-year-old black youth in a trial which drew international attention that fall. (AP Photo)

Mrs. Mamie Bradley, mother of Emmett Louis Till, a black 14 year old slain in Mississippi, attends a rally in Williams Institutional Christian Methodist Episcopal Church at Seventh Avenue, between 131st and 132nd Streets, New York City, September 25, 1955, at which the verdict of last week's trial at Sumner, MS was denounced. Mrs. Bradley told the rally that the acquittal of the two men accused of the murder of her son constituted a signal that lynching is now in order. (AP Photo/stf)

Mrs. Mamie Bradley, mother of Emmett Louis Till, a black 14 year old slain in Mississippi, attends a rally in Williams Institutional Christian Methodist Episcopal Church at Seventh Avenue, between 131st and 132nd Streets, New York City, September 25, 1955, at which the verdict of last week’s trial at Sumner, MS was denounced. Mrs. Bradley told the rally that the acquittal of the two men accused of the murder of her son constituted a signal that lynching is now in order. (AP Photo/stf)

Lamar Howard, 19, of Monroe, Ga., points to bruises he said he received in Atlanta from two white men, Jan. 2, 1947. Howard said they tried to force from him his testimony before a federal grand jury investigation the lynching of four blacks near Monroe last summer. (AP Photo)

Lamar Howard, 19, of Monroe, Ga., points to bruises he said he received in Atlanta from two white men, Jan. 2, 1947. Howard said they tried to force from him his testimony before a federal grand jury investigation the lynching of four blacks near Monroe last summer. (AP Photo)

Pickets, representing the National Association of Colored Women, march at the White House, Washington, July 30, 1946, carrying posters protesting lynching. Placards bear names of Missouri, Michigan, Massachusetts, Louisiana and Kentucky delegations. (AP Photo)

Pickets, representing the National Association of Colored Women, march at the White House, Washington, July 30, 1946, carrying posters protesting lynching. Placards bear names of Missouri, Michigan, Massachusetts, Louisiana and Kentucky delegations. (AP Photo)

Smoke rises from the burning body of Cleo Wright, African American, suspected of attempted rape of a white woman. He was taken from the city hall of Sikeston, Missouri on Jan. 25, 1942, already injured by an arresting officer, and was burned by a mob. (AP Photo)

Smoke rises from the burning body of Cleo Wright, African American, suspected of attempted rape of a white woman. He was taken from the city hall of Sikeston, Missouri on Jan. 25, 1942, already injured by an arresting officer, and was burned by a mob. (AP Photo)

Coroner W.T Brown places a sheet over the body of one of four African American mob victims in a funeral home at Monroe, Ga., in a July 26, 1946 file photo. Newly released files from the lynching of two black couples more than 60 years ago contain a disturbing revelation: The FBI investigated suspicions that a three-term governor of Georgia sanctioned the murders to sway rural white voters during a tough election campaign. (AP Photo, File)

Coroner W.T Brown places a sheet over the body of one of four African American mob victims in a funeral home at Monroe, Ga., in a July 26, 1946 file photo. Newly released files from the lynching of two black couples more than 60 years ago contain a disturbing revelation: The FBI investigated suspicions that a three-term governor of Georgia sanctioned the murders to sway rural white voters during a tough election campaign. (AP Photo, File)

Weary searchers found the bullet-riddled body of Albert Gooden, 35-year-old African American, Tipton County’s first lynch victim since the Civil War near Covington, Tennessee on August 17, 1937. Gooden was seized from Sheriff W.J. Vaughan the night before while the officer was en route from Memphis, where Gooden was held for safekeeping, to Covington, where he was to face a charge a slaying an officer. (AP Photo)

Weary searchers found the bullet-riddled body of Albert Gooden, 35-year-old African American, Tipton County’s first lynch victim since the Civil War near Covington, Tennessee on August 17, 1937. Gooden was seized from Sheriff W.J. Vaughan the night before while the officer was en route from Memphis, where Gooden was held for safekeeping, to Covington, where he was to face a charge a slaying an officer. (AP Photo)

Saved earlier from a mob by national guardsmen and a judge, Lint Shaw, a 45 year old Negro, was taken from jail in Royston, Georgia, and lynched a short time before he was to have gone on trial for attacking a white girl. Ref #: PA.2480685  Date: 28/04/1936

Saved earlier from a mob by national guardsmen and a judge, Lint Shaw, a 45 year old Negro, was taken from jail in Royston, Georgia, and lynched a short time before he was to have gone on trial for attacking a white girl.
Ref #: PA.2480685
Date: 28/04/1936

Georgia Governor Eugene Talmadge bites his cigar at a Democratic National Committee meeting in Washington, D.C., in a Jan. 9, 1936 file photo. Newly released files from a horrific lynching of two black couples 61 years ago contain a disturbing revelation: The FBI investigated suspicions that Talmadge, a three-term governor of Georgia, approved the murders to sway rural white voters during a tough election campaign. (AP Photo, File)

Georgia Governor Eugene Talmadge bites his cigar at a Democratic National Committee meeting in Washington, D.C., in a Jan. 9, 1936 file photo. Newly released files from a horrific lynching of two black couples 61 years ago contain a disturbing revelation: The FBI investigated suspicions that Talmadge, a three-term governor of Georgia, approved the murders to sway rural white voters during a tough election campaign. (AP Photo, File)

A crowd gathers to view the body of 32-year-old Rubin Stacy as he hangs from a tree in Fort Lauderdale, Fl., on July 19, 1935. Stacy was lynched by a mob of masked men who seized him from the custody of sheriff's deputies for allegedly attacking a white woman. Ref #: PA.2499602

A crowd gathers to view the body of 32-year-old Rubin Stacy as he hangs from a tree in Fort Lauderdale, Fl., on July 19, 1935. Stacy was lynched by a mob of masked men who seized him from the custody of sheriff’s deputies for allegedly attacking a white woman.
Ref #: PA.2499602

The body of 32-year-old Rubin Stacy hangs from a tree in Fort Lauderdale, Fla., as neighbors visit the site. Stacy was lynched by a mob of masked men who seized him from the custody of sheriff's deputies for allegedly attacking a white woman. Ref #: PA.2480694  Date: 19/07/1935

The body of 32-year-old Rubin Stacy hangs from a tree in Fort Lauderdale, Fla., as neighbors visit the site.
Stacy was lynched by a mob of masked men who seized him from the custody of sheriff’s deputies for allegedly attacking a white woman.
Ref #: PA.2480694
Date: 19/07/1935

More than 1,200 braved disagreeable weather to attend a rally in Union Square, New York City, December 9, 1933, on behalf of the nine Scottsboro boys. The meeting was arranged by the International Labor Defense and was backed by the Communist Party. The marchers carried banners and a sign with the image of a lynching, and the legend "Alabama - The land of the tree and the home of the grave."

More than 1,200 braved disagreeable weather to attend a rally in Union Square, New York City, December 9, 1933, on behalf of the nine Scottsboro boys. The meeting was arranged by the International Labor Defense and was backed by the Communist Party. The marchers carried banners and a sign with the image of a lynching, and the legend “Alabama – The land of the tree and the home of the grave.”

State Troopers keep a crowd in check in Salisbury, Md., Nov. 28, 1933. The troopers were sent by Gov. Albert Ritchie to arrest suspects in the lynching of George Armwood in nearby Princess Anne, Md., last month. They were threatened by the crowds and used tear gas to repulse them. (AP Photo)

State Troopers keep a crowd in check in Salisbury, Md., Nov. 28, 1933. The troopers were sent by Gov. Albert Ritchie to arrest suspects in the lynching of George Armwood in nearby Princess Anne, Md., last month. They were threatened by the crowds and used tear gas to repulse them. (AP Photo)

Maryland State Troopers in charge of the campaign to apprehend a group of lynchers work out a plan of attack in Salisbury, Md., Nov. 28, 1933. From left: Attorney General W. Preston Lane Jr.; Col. Washington Bowie; Brigadier General Milton A. Reckord, state adjutant general; and Capt. Edward Mck. Johnson of the Maryland State Police. (AP Photo) Ref #: PA.20299308  Date: 28/11/1933

Maryland State Troopers in charge of the campaign to apprehend a group of lynchers work out a plan of attack in Salisbury, Md., Nov. 28, 1933. From left: Attorney General W. Preston Lane Jr.; Col. Washington Bowie; Brigadier General Milton A. Reckord, state adjutant general; and Capt. Edward Mck. Johnson of the Maryland State Police. (AP Photo)
Ref #: PA.20299308
Date: 28/11/1933

A crowd looks on as Thomas Thurmond hangs from a tree limb after he was beaten by a lynch mob in San Jose, Ca. Thurmond, along with Jack Holmes, confessed the kidnap-slaying of 22-year-old Brooke Hart of San Francisco. Ref #: PA.2499605  Date: 26/11/1933

A crowd looks on as Thomas Thurmond hangs from a tree limb after he was beaten by a lynch mob in San Jose, Ca. Thurmond, along with Jack Holmes, confessed the kidnap-slaying of 22-year-old Brooke Hart of San Francisco.
Ref #: PA.2499605
Date: 26/11/1933

Rioter's converge outside the Douglas County Courthouse. On Sept. 27, an angry mob grabbed William Brown, a black man, inside the courthouse after he was accused of mugging a white, handicapped man and raping the man's fiancee. Brown was stripped, beaten unconscious and castrated before hundreds of bullets were fired into his body as he was dragged by an automobile and hanged from a downtown light pole. Ref #: PA.2499598  Date: 28/09/1919

Rioter’s converge outside the Douglas County Courthouse. On Sept. 27, an angry mob grabbed William Brown, a black man, inside the courthouse after he was accused of mugging a white, handicapped man and raping the man’s fiancee. Brown was stripped, beaten unconscious and castrated before hundreds of bullets were fired into his body as he was dragged by an automobile and hanged from a downtown light pole.
Ref #: PA.2499598
Date: 28/09/1919

Loy Harrison, right, in this photo taken July 26, 1946, shows Oconeee County Sheriff J.M. Bond, left, and Coroner W.T. Brown of Walton County, center, the spot where four blacks had been abducted from his car. On July 25, 1946 George Dorsey, Mae Murray Dorsey, Roger Malcom and Dorothy Malcom were lynched by a mob on the old bridge that spanned the Apalachee River some 60 miles from Atlanta.

Loy Harrison, right, in this photo taken July 26, 1946, shows Oconeee County Sheriff J.M. Bond, left, and Coroner W.T. Brown of Walton County, center, the spot where four blacks had been abducted from his car. On July 25, 1946 George Dorsey, Mae Murray Dorsey, Roger Malcom and Dorothy Malcom were lynched by a mob on the old bridge that spanned the Apalachee River some 60 miles from Atlanta.

An undated portrait of Emmett Louis Till, a black 14 year old Chicago boy, whose weighted down body was found in the Tallahatchie River near the Delta community of Money, Mississippi, August 31, 1955. Local residents Roy Bryant, 24, and J.W. Milam, 35, were accused of kidnapping, torturing and murdering Till for allegedly whistling at Bryant's wife. (AP Photo)

An undated portrait of Emmett Louis Till, a black 14 year old Chicago boy, whose weighted down body was found in the Tallahatchie River near the Delta community of Money, Mississippi, August 31, 1955. Local residents Roy Bryant, 24, and J.W. Milam, 35, were accused of kidnapping, torturing and murdering Till for allegedly whistling at Bryant’s wife. (AP Photo)

  • Also:

    “Quite a few states did in fact lynch more white people than black. In the West these greater number of white lynchings was due to political reasons not racial reasons. California, Colorado, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming lynched more whites than blacks.”

    http://www.chesnuttarchive.org/classroom/lynchingstat.html

    Emmett Till:

    “It was a groundbreaking piece of civil-rights reportage, and an act of moral initiative on Huie’s part that went beyond a canny reporter’s grab at a hot story. But not everyone was, or is, convinced by either the killers’ account or Huie’s endorsement of it. Was the extent of Emmett Till’s defiance plausible? Or was this the scenario the killers needed to justify their actions in their own eyes? Stephen J. Whitfield, author of A Death in the Delta: The Story of Emmett Till (1991), challenges Huie’s rendering of Bobo as “impervious to the danger he faced,” continuing his bold disobedience to the very moment of his death; to him, this “invites skepticism if not incredulity.”

    “Other misgivings arose from what Huie neglected to tell his readers. Craig Flourney, a Pulitzer Prize-winning Texas reporter and journalism professor, suggests the article has two serious omissions: “First, [Huie] makes no mention of having paid the killers to talk. Second, the article includes no quotes from blacks.” (No quotes, he must mean, responding specifically to the killers’ abduction scenario; black witnesses are recorded in other contexts.) Whitfield is troubled by Huie’s elision of courtroom testimony, given at enormous personal risk by local blacks Mose Wright and Willie Reed, that others besides Milam and Bryant were involved in Till’s abduction; he also refers to a letter from Huie to his editors, in which he claims to know the identities of four killers. Whitfield concludes that Huie’s account “was only partially true, which means at worst that it was partially false and at best that it was quite misleading.”

    “These caveats taint the veracity of Huie’s account, at least to the point that we must characterize the Till confessions as part fact, part outlaw myth crafted by the outlaws themselves—which makes Huie, in this instance, as much folklorist as journalist.”

    http://www.criticsatlarge.ca/2014/11/william-bradford-huie-accursed-american.html

    • DL

      Which proves, of course, that racism doesn’t exist.

  • MoricErianna

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  • Gerry Maloney Sr

    These are some sick facts from back then but the crime rate was alot smaller then i only say about today if blacks are so picked on ?? Why is it they are 35% of the country but do 85% of the crime ?? Dont scream bad lawyers or no jobs you have to point at the biggest thing hurting blacks is the lack of having good decent fathers in the home to help raise responsible young men!!!!!! The facts are the facts no changing them 78% of all black men are raised by there mothers and most dont even know there fathers which is why i think they have no respect for authority what so ever so until we get black men to accept there role model status to there children there will always be a serious gap between white and black crime

    • Kitty

      Nice to see you have no actual idea what goes on in the world beyond the tip of your own nose. Fuck off and die.

    • Robert Barel

      there father ? white pride ? you should have no pride in your spelling I can tell you that boy.

    • Scout Wellsrain

      They are only 12.5 percent of the country and commit 60 percent of all crime, INCLUDING serial rape and especially pedophilia.

      • greenenvy070

        Ooops…

        According to the Survey of Inmates of State Correctional Facilities by the U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, the following statistics have been recorded concerning the characteristics of offenders who violate and assault children.

        * Those inmates who were convicted of committing violent acts against children were more like to have been white, a percentage of nearly 70%, than any other race.
        * White inmates were nearly three times more likely to have victimized a child than black inmates.

        • Scout Wellsrain

          LIES. GO TO THE FBI STATS AT FBI.GOV

          • greenenvy070

            Why not point out these so-called “stats” at FBI.GOV? Perhaps because they don’t exist?

            The U.S. Department of Justice is a fine source for this data, and it proves the exact OPPOSITE of what you say.

          • Scout Wellsrain
          • Scout Wellsrain
          • greenenvy070

            Wow! The SAME statistics that say NOTHING about “pedophilia”? Thanks?

          • Scout Wellsrain

            Blacks commit far more of that too. You can holler all you want, but the facts are there, BOY

          • greenenvy070

            The best part of this? I’m not even black, but I can spot ignorant white trash a mile away.

          • Scout Wellsrain

            SEE, you can’t win an argument with facts, just feels and insults. I have a doc in history from an ivy school, but dumped academia for tech and retired at 36, with more money in one trust than you will ever earn in your lifetime. And I built my company (now sold) by only hiring whites (I would have hired others, but I hired for intelligence and merit). And I donate tons to white causes. So, not only did I win the argument, I won at life. Unlike you. Blocked, loser. You were bullied in high school for a reason!

          • greenenvy070

            This may be the least interesting string of fabrications and untruths that have ever been strung together in a pathetic reply on a message board. The icing on the cake? You have “a doc in history”… “a doc”? As I stated before, poor white trash doesn’t know when to stop. Keep spinning and spinning.

          • Scout Wellsrain

            Undergrad KU Lawrence, BA History. MA thesis, NYU, “Encomiendas and Franciscan Peninsulare Reformists, Early 18th Century New Spain”, Ph.D. Columbia/U Salamanca “De las Casas and the Legacy of Pain: The Church in Agrarian Reform During the Third Viceroyalty”. Don’t bother hunting JSTOR, retard, those have been changed just enough for your racist ass to not play doxing games. We know how you peabrained RACIST ANTIWHITE SJW nazis operate.

            And oh. I HAVE TENURE, BITCH! ROFLMAO

          • greenenvy070

            What, I thought I was “blocked”? How did you even get my response? Yeah… just more bullshit.

            Also, you previously claimed to have “dumped academia for tech” and “retired at 36″… but now you have supposedly have “tenure” with your Ph.D.?

            Here’s a hint. If you’re gonna lie, at least keep your own BS straight. And the fact that you even think I want to identify your phony “persona” is beyond laughable. Enjoy slurping cheap beer through your remaining teeth.

          • Scout Wellsrain

            Wait, what? I blocked Tyrone, your big black buck boyfriend, not you. You do know he’s cheating on you, right?

            THE FIRE RISES

          • greenenvy070

            Excellent comeback “professor”. I find that most educated posters engage in ALL CAPS. Ha!

          • Scout Wellsrain

            WHUT, TYRONE DIDN’T TELL U WHEN HE WUZ UP IN YUH DAT WE BE SAYIN DOC SHORT FOR DOCTORATE? Dimwit. Next time listen when you’re biting that pillow.

    • Gregory Jonassaint

      You’re just a racist looking for reasons to keep murdering innocent black people. Go to the FBI website and look at violent crime by race, and you’ll see the majority of violent crimes are done by whites you stupid idiot.

  • Howcome X.

    The vast majority of those vigilante actions were in response to women being attacked.

    • Kitty

      Doesn’t matter. I’m a white woman, I’ve even been attacked…. and wait for it.. by WHITE MEN. They deserve to be lynched? No, not even I think that. They deserve due process because this is supposed to be a fucking democracy. You’re such a fucking wanker.

  • G.a. Temples

    Those were the good old days. I wished I had been in those days!

    • Concerned Citizen

      You would have gotten hung you look like a pedophile

      • G.a. Temples

        Is that the best you can do? Nigger lover.

        • Kitty

          You’re a piece of shit. I’d like to see you hang from a tree, you racist bastard.

        • Ralph Scriptic Long

          Stupid cave rhetoric from a subterranean troglodyte. I am NOT surprised, Temples

          • G.a. Temples

            How well evolution has done over millions of years. You Apes actually can use big words taken from us Whites! WOW! I’m impressed! But the fact remains, your kind has always shown it’s true nature by riots and destroying this once great nation. You can take the ape out of the jungle, but can’t take the jungle of out the ape. Everytime I watch Jew box there is another worlthless, thick lip, gery curl nigger show! Now you coons are crying about Hollywood! Really, the kikes own it, and you niggers can’t get enogg. JUST DIE YOU GODDAMN WORTHLESS SUBHUAM FUCKING MONKEY!! I FUCKING HATE YOU ALL!

          • Sarah Stallworth

            I’m embarrassed to be one of you! & YES, black men do and will ALWAYS have it ‘going on’ 😉 Please don’t be mad. You’re only hurting yourself with jealousy.

          • G.a. Temples

            You’re not, slut. If beastality is your thing. I’m not jealous of animals. You’ll get what you deserve.

          • Sarah Stallworth

            SLUT! slut slut slut slut. I’m going to get all my family and girlfriends to keep mixing with black men and having babies with them. Let me know when you’re daughter is primed & ready.

          • G.a. Temples

            I don’t care what a “hoe” like you does. Lay up with your nasty gold tooth nigger and suck on his monkey dick. I don’t have a daughter, slut, bitch, nigger lover, fucking you black monkey. You bore me you nasty sick cunt.

          • Sarah Stallworth

            oooooooo! So many curse words. So hard to handle. 🙂 I just hope you can refrain from fantasizing about black women. They’re not yours to touch, shorty.

          • G.a. Temples

            Apparently your mother wasn’t aware of abortions. What a shame; had she known, there would one less nigger lover in the world.

          • Sarah Stallworth

            Oh, my bad. You’re still here talking. Uhm… I’ll be right back.

          • Anthony

            Black nigger or white nigger?

          • Scout Wellsrain

            I own several nigger wenches. All I did was go on established men and got.me.a.couple nig hoes I maintain. I get all the nighoes I want, paying for/owning them or not.

          • Anthony

            You so stupid I can’t think of words to respond

          • Scout Wellsrain

            Cause u an australopithecene

          • Scout Wellsrain

            CAUSE U SPEAK DEH WHITE MANS LANGUAGE NIGGUH

          • Scout Wellsrain

            OOOOK OOOOK EEEEK OOOOOK MONKEY

          • Anthony

            Big Dick BLACK niggers,or little dick white niggers?

          • Scout Wellsrain

            Yep.a garotte

        • Anthony

          You’re a nigger too,hahaha

      • G.a. Temples

        I don’t look like any members of your family.

    • Adaj Parr

      The reason white men lynched black men was because the black man has fat long penis. The white women loves fat long penis. White women cannot get this from the white man. Especially white men in southern state they known throughout the country for have short thin penis no longer than 3 1/2 inches. This is medically known and a huge reason many white woman in the south are unhappy consistently seeking the company of big penis black man. This was well known during slavery and after. The reason given by the insecure short penis white man, they always stated the black did something to the white woman. Yes, the black man did do something to the white woman. The black man hit the spot the white man could not. That being the G-spot in the white woman vagina. The black man penis could reach the G-spot, the white man short small penis could not.

      • Scout Wellsrain

        More nigger fantasies. Jigs dicks are smaller than whites when erect. White dicks, when not erect, have the evolutionary development to shrink so as not to get frozen off in the cold environments whites evolved in. Your average white penis, when erect,.swells up to five times its size when flaccid. Nigs dicks always stay the same size whether flaccid or erect. Also, white women’s cervixes are farther back from the vaginal opening, and the vaginal opening and labia are smaller, also an evolutionary development to deal with cold. The white male penis, for its urethra to meet the cervical opening when ejaculating, has to be longer to reach it. These facts have been scientifically proven time and again, but dindus don’t care about facts. Knowing that they are ugly and stupid, they have to harp on and on about “penis size”… because the white man beats them in everything intellectual and social every time throughout history. “Big black dick” is just like “niggas beez egyptiants”. Sheer fantasy.

        • Adaj Parr

          So, you just explained why the black man’s dick is bigger than the white man’s dick. And why white woman love to have sex with black men because the black man’s dick can hit the bottom. Now that is physically proven. LOL!

          • Scout Wellsrain

            HAHAHAHAHAH!!! Another nigger who has the reading comprehension of his cousin the chimp. WHITEYS DICK BE BIGGUH. Real simple. That’s why black women- ALL women- prefer white men. The only “white wimmenz” you coons can get are the landwhales or the mentally ill throwaways who want to piss off their daddies, in other words, ones we won’t touch. And you know it. Not only do we go from cold-shrinkage to bigger than your little standard baby pee-pees, every black woman out there who has the good fortune to be noticed by a white man. They want US rather than an abusive black BOY, a poopskinned CHILDMAN who doesn’t know how to bring women to orgasm and doesn’t seem to understand that ejaculating inside a woman can cause pregnancy… black males are low-IQ BOYS with no ability to see cause and effect, which is why 80 percent of coons are born without fathers. Black women know whites are better lovers, better looking, better providers, more intelligent, and responsible. We eat pussy and know what we are doing, for just one aspect/example of how we completely DESTROY you in the sack as in EVERY OTHER WAY. We let you have your childish little fantasies to occupy your high-time-preference, magpie-like minds, mainly because it is HILARIOUS. Yeah, your dicks are bigger (snicker), white.wimminz want you (snicker) and YOU WUZ KANGS N SHIEEIT. HAHAHAHAHAHAJAJAJ Keep dreaming, Sambo!

          • Adaj Parr

            So you are admitting you had sex with monkeys. Sad! The best and biggest word in your vocabulary in the n-word. Your family values are well represented and showing the inbreeding that made it all possible. Your mother should have taking that offer from the big dick black man down the street.

          • Scout Wellsrain

            How else would your wanna-be full white mulatto ass have been spawned if not for bedwenches?

          • Adaj Parr

            So, you do have sex with monkeys, right! White men will stick their small tiny dicks in anything. That is your position as you are telling.

          • Scout Wellsrain

            Eeek ooook eeep ooookk at least we aren’t compulsive pedophiles like nigga bucks. See crimes against children and families below. That is y’all nigguhs raping kids at 3.times the rate of other races. Whites.don’t have a prob controlling themselves. Boons muh dik eberytang dey see. https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/1b6f8425b3407522045d60e171d1ff89153267bd68fcc1a26d2957e30c61a9c3.png

          • Adaj Parr

            So, you are losing the argument on the white man having small dicks, and the truth about black men having fat long dicks hitting the bottom of the white woman’s vagina. You bring white inspired information that are number taken from white incensed, rapes, crimes against families. What else do you have to offer beside small dicks. LOL

          • Anthony

            Sperm man so weak,that’s why whites have problems having kids,sperm to weak,I know you watch porn,you see the black man tearing that hole up,white man pathetic in bed.

          • Scout Wellsrain

            WHITES don’t have problems having kids, WE ARE JUST RESPONSIBLE about it, nigger. We don’t have them until WE CAN PAY FOR THEM. We don’t have evil whitey paying EBT and section 8. So we act accordingly. We aren’t monkeys axing whitey fo gib and dem programs.

          • Anthony

            TAKE HEED

            The white “race” is in reality nothing more than an inbred sub-race, and an aberration of the hyman species. All whites are genetically defective and inferior by definition. The white man makes up less than 10% of the world’s population. It is impossible for the white man to be the “supreme race” of the human species. Their numbers simply do not support their claim. The white man is the true minority on the planet. The white man’s pale “pigment” is inherited from his albino progenitors. This is the reason the white man cannot point to any other single natural lineage to explain his ancestry (unlike all the other people in the world). If not the black man in Africa, whence did the white man come?

            The “dark-freckled pigmentation” commonly found on the white man’s skin is a vestigial indicator of his true ancestor: the black man. No species on this planet is truly white unless the MAJORITY of that species is white. The vast majority of man are people of color. The white man is singular in his bizarre appearance. To put it concisely, the very condition of being white constitutes a defective anomaly and, consequently, is indicative of species inferiority. Hence, the white man is marked. The white man despises the black metal because the white man knows he himself can never be anything other than a lesser man (the white man is a defect). Again, the white man is marked. The white man has contributed to his own genetic deficiencies through his history of inbreeding. Fact: if you closely observe enough whites, you will notice that there are those with one green and one blue eye. There are too many known cases of the occurrence for them to be considered mere random mutations.) As a result of their inbreeding and other genetic defects, all whites are thieves, liars, sociopaths, psychopaths, etc. Because the white man is inherently psychotic, it is imperative that you teach your children to NEVER trust a white man (or woman). Before too long, the white man will get the message that he is persona-non-grata in this world, and he will eventually die off.

            The white man has lied to you. If the white man were GOD’s prized creation, would HE have given HIS prized creation such poor covering in lieu of protection, i.e., the white man’s inadequate pale flesh? (Would you have done that?) Once again, the insidious white man is marked. The only god the white man obeys is god satan. satan is the white man’s true god. The white man’s sole purpose in this world is to function as a recruiter for satan. And satan richly rewards his followers. GOD would not reward you in so trite a way for doing what HE commands you to do. Your non-tangible rewards from GOD are the avoidance of the consequences that would befall you should you fail to follow GOD’s command. (And not those commands set in the white man’s make-believe bible) Would GOD sanction or allow such horrid conditions as war, poverty, organized pedophilia (the catholic church), incest, intentional.

          • Anthony

            Inbred NiggerMost of us think of Europe as the ancestral home of white people. But a new study shows that pale skin, as well as other traits such as tallness and the ability to digest milk as adults, arrived in most of the continent relatively recently. The work, presented here last week at the 84th annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, offers dramatic evidence of recent evolution in Europe and shows that most modern Europeans don’t look much like those of 8000 years ago.

            The origins of Europeans have come into sharp focus in the past year as researchers have sequenced the genomes of ancient populations, rather than only a few individuals. By comparing key parts of the DNA across the genomes of 83 ancient individuals from archaeological sites throughout Europe, the international team of researchers reported earlier this year that Europeans today are a mix of the blending of at least three ancient populations of hunter-gatherers and farmers who moved into Europe in separate migrations over the past 8000 years. The study revealed that amassive migration of Yamnaya herders from the steppes north of the Black Sea may have brought Indo-European languages to Europe about 4500 years ago.

            Now, a new study from the same team drills down further into that remarkable data to search for genes that were under strong natural selection—including traits so favorable that they spread rapidly throughout Europe in the past 8000 years. By comparing the ancient European genomes with those of recent ones from the 1000 Genomes Project, population geneticist Iain Mathieson, a postdoc in the Harvard University lab of population geneticist David Reich, found five genes associated with changes in diet and skin pigmentation that underwent strong natural selection.

            First, the scientists confirmed an earlier report that the hunter-gatherers in Europe could not digest the sugars in milk 8000 years ago, according to a poster. They also noted an interesting twist: The first farmers also couldn’t digest milk. The farmers who came from the Near East about 7800 years ago and the Yamnaya pastoralists who came from the steppes 4800 years ago lacked the version of the LCT gene that allows adults to digest sugars in milk. It wasn’t until about 4300 years ago that lactose tolerance swept through Europe.

            When it comes to skin color, the team found a patchwork of evolution in different places, and three separate genes that produce light skin, telling a complex story for how European’s skin evolved to be much lighter during the past 8000 years. The modern humans who came out of Africa to originally settle Europe about 40,000 years are presumed to have had dark skin, which is advantageous in sunny latitudes. And the new data confirm that about 8500 years ago, early hunter-gatherers in Spain, Luxembourg, and Hungary also had darker skin: They lacked versions of two genes—SLC24A5 and SLC45A2—that lead to depigmentation and, therefore, pale skin in Europeans today.

            But in the far north—where low light levels would favor pale skin—the team found a different picture in hunter-gatherers: Seven people from the 7700-year-old Motala archaeological site in southern Sweden had both light skin gene variants, SLC24A5 and SLC45A2. They also had a third gene, HERC2/OCA2, which causes blue eyes and may also contribute to light skin and blond hair. Thus ancient hunter-gatherers of the far north were already pale and blue-eyed, but those of central and southern Europe had darker skin.

            Then, the first farmers from the Near East arrived in Europe; they carried both genes for light skin. As they interbred with the indigenous hunter-gatherers, one of their light-skin genes swept through Europe, so that central and southern Europeans also began to have lighter skin. The other gene variant, SLC45A2, was at low levels until about 5800 years ago when it swept up to high frequency.

            The team also tracked complex traits, such as height, which are the result of the interaction of many genes. They found that selection strongly favored several gene variants for tallness in northern and central Europeans, starting 8000 years ago, with a boost coming from the Yamnaya migration, starting 4800 years ago. The Yamnaya have the greatest genetic potential for being tall of any of the populations, which is consistent with measurements of their ancient skeletons. In contrast, selection favored shorter people in Italy and Spain starting 8000 years ago, according to the paper now posted on the bioRxiv preprint server. Spaniards, in particular, shrank in stature 6000 years ago, perhaps as a result of adapting to colder temperatures and a poor diet.

            Surprisingly, the team found no immune genes under intense selection, which is counter to hypotheses that diseases would have increased after the development of agriculture.

            The paper doesn’t specify why these genes might have been under such strong selection. But the likely explanation for the pigmentation genes is to maximize vitamin D synthesis, said paleoanthropologist Nina Jablonski of Pennsylvania State University (Penn State), University Park, as she looked at the poster’s results at the meeting. People living in northern latitudes often don’t get enough UV to synthesize vitamin D in their skin so natural selection has favored two genetic solutions to that problem—evolving pale skin that absorbs UV more efficiently or favoring lactose tolerance to be able to digest the sugars and vitamin D naturally found in milk. “What we thought was a fairly simple picture of the emergence of depigmented skin in Europe is an exciting patchwork of selection as populations disperse into northern latitudes,” Jablonski says. “This data is fun because it shows how much recent evolution has taken place.”

            Anthropological geneticist George Perry, also of Penn State, notes that the work reveals how an individual’s genetic potential is shaped by their diet and adaptation to their habitat. “We’re getting a much more detailed picture now of how selection works”

          • Anthony

            Weak ass genes,inbred nemphilims demons,nasty pale skin,no melanin, you better stay out of the Albino nigger

          • Scout Wellsrain

            Look, the monkey lies in a white man’s language. White men are inferior, that’s why Africa is Africa and Europe is Europe. Ah, but de whyatt man stole all dat cultuh from de kangs n sheeit

          • rocin koal

            Scout Wellsrain you are absolutely correct yes the White man did steal all that and “sheeit” The Africa you see today is the Africa’ that was created in the White man’s control, it looks much like Charles Dickens England when you people had all those plagues, the dark ages and widespread poverty. That was also a time when you hadn’t managed to steal all the wealth you managed to steal now from Africa, thanks for that intelligent observation of yours.

          • Scout Wellsrain

            HAHAHAHA THE DICKENSIAN ERA WAS THE HEIGHT OF COLONIALISM YOU DUMB NIGGER ROFLMAO

          • rocin koal

            Lol!! Idiotic White man, at this time the White man had not seen rewards from anything he stole. The Industrial Revolution starts in about 1760, but it starts in earnest around 1800. Dickensian period is 1812-1870. Britain had not realised the fruit of what they stolen. This is not rocket science you think fuck! Whites start enjoying the fruits of their thuggery in about 1930. You are a moron.

          • Scout Wellsrain

            NIGGER SAY WHA? Guess the white man still rules this country, huh, shitskin?

          • rocin koal

            The only true nigger is you my worm skin coloured friend. And no you do not rule the USA, all that is over, you are on your last legs with the man ape Trump the chimp chump.

          • Scout Wellsrain

            Guess what coon- we have ALL THREE BRANCHES OF GOV IN THE BAG. Party is over. Your kind has proven you can’t run shit without playing your racist games, so now we level the field and you never get on it again. Believe it, nigger!

          • rocin koal

            You think I am upset with you and don’t understand how impressed I am by everything about you. The monkey sounds you make, the clear nigger traits of screaming nigger every second. The ugly nigger trait of always waiting for the leader of your chimp colony, you are a truly impressive nigger. There is not one chimp trait you have not exhibited here. The way you have clearly been waiting for the executive order from the king chimp. I can see how long your niggery ass has waited and people should at least respect you for that. This nigger is so stupid that he thinks, Donald Chump’s election will be a chance for him to chimp out, lol!! Can’t wait to see what your monkey ass will do, maybe eat a few more bananas than you usually do lol!! You will level what field? Lmao!! Bro you are a nigger, you will never be on a level field, you are always at a disadvantage you silly ape.

          • rocin koal

            You’re such a dumb tree dwelling ape that you think people will suddenly look at you as anything more than the chimp you have always looked at. In fact, more people who did not recognise you as a dumb ape will now you stupid disease carrying monkey ass fool. You are so stupid, what do you think you have earned now? Respect you silly lice and flea infected diseased looking, ass scratching hairy ape?

          • Scout Wellsrain

            HAHAHAHAHHA! Rockin that coal no doubt! HAHAHAHAH

          • Scout Wellsrain

            Hey nigger. You are under arrest! MAGA, ya ignorant monkey

          • rocin koal

            You are a lovely worm skinned nigger, that sometimes looked like a dried up white shit left out too long in the sun.

          • Scout Wellsrain

            Nigger says what? Eeep orrp.ook eek

          • Scout Wellsrain

            The black monkey commits crime because he is of low intelligence and has no impulse control. If it (the monkey race) were superior, itf would rule the white. Instead it fantasizes about how all white.civilizarion was actually black. Monkeys have magpie like minds and short attention spans and short members. They didn’t have the wheel when the godlike white man arrived. In fact, the subsaharan monkeys thought whites WERE gods.

            Lets do this for argument with a monkeys sake. Don’t know what history you think you know, but you’re either incredibly dumb or an outright liar. Let’s just imagine America without whites, shall we?

            WELCOME TO THE STONE AGE. AND HUMAN SACRIFICE IN MESOAMERICA. No electricity, steel, antibiotics, air travel, internet, etc, for starters.

            Oh, but that was all stolen from sub-saharan Africa, I see. Where they didn’t have the wheel when Europeans arrived.

            AMERICA IS OURS. EVERYTHING IN IT WAS BUILT BY EUROPEANS. Sorry, but just the facts (and hey, HOTEPs… peanut butter or tweaks to existing white inventions aren’t in the discussion, because we’re not discussing nonsense). And we have the same right to a homeland as the Chinese, the Arabs, or the Africans. That homeland is Europe and the English-speaking world. Why are you a racist? Just admit your race hate for whites. This is why you want to deny our achievements (THE ENTIRE.MODERN WORLD) and deny us a homeland. Why do you seek our genocide, you racist? You know that according to any standard of human behavior (and the UN charter) we have the right to resist displacement and genocide, correct? By force if necessary.

            ..
            and everytime whites have a homeland, everyone else wants to come there. Because of what whites create. Clean, reasonably egalitarian, technologically advanced societies, with almost no crime, and where women are safe and have rights. Just juxtapose Haiti- a black-ruled country of bounty for two hundred years- to Iceland. White-ruled, and a blasted rock where nothing grows outside of a greenhouse. Juxtapose their development over the past two hundred years. (Crickets). The folks of Iceland had no colonies, were not involved in worldwide white exploitative colonial EVIL, but somehow they built a safe, self-sustaining, advanced society. Hmmm. Wonder why? Could it be that RACE ISN’T A SOCIAL CONSTRUCT? (Gasp). Hmmmm. No one wants to emigrate to Uganda, or Yemen, or Mexico. You won’t stop hounding us until we make you. We get that now. You will be completely erased this time. The only reason black population has grown in apefrica is because of white.medicine, science, and largesse. And we have the power to end it, too… we now have gene-specific bio-weapons. BELIEVE IT, MR.GODINDU. Become too troublesome, and you will become extinct.

          • rocin koal

            Wrong this time Scout Badbrain, the WHITE MONKEY is in fact the father of all crime, he operates like an armed gang who propagate by spreading crime, disease and murder. The first global drug dealer A WHITE MAN. First to use biological warfare WHITES. First to drop an atomic bomb on humans WHITE MAN, First to invest more money than it was is spent on anything else on weaponry, the white man.

          • Anthony

            Most of us think of Europe as the ancestral home of white people. But a new study shows that pale skin, as well as other traits such as tallness and the ability to digest milk as adults, arrived in most of the continent relatively recently. The work, presented here last week at the 84th annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, offers dramatic evidence of recent evolution in Europe and shows that most modern Europeans don’t look much like those of 8000 years ago.

            The origins of Europeans have come into sharp focus in the past year as researchers have sequenced the genomes of ancient populations, rather than only a few individuals. By comparing key parts of the DNA across the genomes of 83 ancient individuals from archaeological sites throughout Europe, the international team of researchers reported earlier this year that Europeans today are a mix of the blending of at least three ancient populations of hunter-gatherers and farmers who moved into Europe in separate migrations over the past 8000 years. The study revealed that amassive migration of Yamnaya herders from the steppes north of the Black Sea may have brought Indo-European languages to Europe about 4500 years ago.

            Now, a new study from the same team drills down further into that remarkable data to search for genes that were under strong natural selection—including traits so favorable that they spread rapidly throughout Europe in the past 8000 years. By comparing the ancient European genomes with those of recent ones from the 1000 Genomes Project, population geneticist Iain Mathieson, a postdoc in the Harvard University lab of population geneticist David Reich, found five genes associated with changes in diet and skin pigmentation that underwent strong natural selection.

            First, the scientists confirmed an earlier report that the hunter-gatherers in Europe could not digest the sugars in milk 8000 years ago, according to a poster. They also noted an interesting twist: The first farmers also couldn’t digest milk. The farmers who came from the Near East about 7800 years ago and the Yamnaya pastoralists who came from the steppes 4800 years ago lacked the version of the LCT gene that allows adults to digest sugars in milk. It wasn’t until about 4300 years ago that lactose tolerance swept through Europe.

            When it comes to skin color, the team found a patchwork of evolution in different places, and three separate genes that produce light skin, telling a complex story for how European’s skin evolved to be much lighter during the past 8000 years. The modern humans who came out of Africa to originally settle Europe about 40,000 years are presumed to have had dark skin, which is advantageous in sunny latitudes. And the new data confirm that about 8500 years ago, early hunter-gatherers in Spain, Luxembourg, and Hungary also had darker skin: They lacked versions of two genes—SLC24A5 and SLC45A2—that lead to depigmentation and, therefore, pale skin in Europeans today.

            But in the far north—where low light levels would favor pale skin—the team found a different picture in hunter-gatherers: Seven people from the 7700-year-old Motala archaeological site in southern Sweden had both light skin gene variants, SLC24A5 and SLC45A2. They also had a third gene, HERC2/OCA2, which causes blue eyes and may also contribute to light skin and blond hair. Thus ancient hunter-gatherers of the far north were already pale and blue-eyed, but those of central and southern Europe had darker skin.

            Then, the first farmers from the Near East arrived in Europe; they carried both genes for light skin. As they interbred with the indigenous hunter-gatherers, one of their light-skin genes swept through Europe, so that central and southern Europeans also began to have lighter skin. The other gene variant, SLC45A2, was at low levels until about 5800 years ago when it swept up to high frequency.

            The team also tracked complex traits, such as height, which are the result of the interaction of many genes. They found that selection strongly favored several gene variants for tallness in northern and central Europeans, starting 8000 years ago, with a boost coming from the Yamnaya migration, starting 4800 years ago. The Yamnaya have the greatest genetic potential for being tall of any of the populations, which is consistent with measurements of their ancient skeletons. In contrast, selection favored shorter people in Italy and Spain starting 8000 years ago, according to the paper now posted on the bioRxiv preprint server. Spaniards, in particular, shrank in stature 6000 years ago, perhaps as a result of adapting to colder temperatures and a poor diet.

            Surprisingly, the team found no immune genes under intense selection, which is counter to hypotheses that diseases would have increased after the development of agriculture.

            The paper doesn’t specify why these genes might have been under such strong selection. But the likely explanation for the pigmentation genes is to maximize vitamin D synthesis, said paleoanthropologist Nina Jablonski of Pennsylvania State University (Penn State), University Park, as she looked at the poster’s results at the meeting. People living in northern latitudes often don’t get enough UV to synthesize vitamin D in their skin so natural selection has favored two genetic solutions to that problem—evolving pale skin that absorbs UV more efficiently or favoring lactose tolerance to be able to digest the sugars and vitamin D naturally found in milk. “What we thought was a fairly simple picture of the emergence of depigmented skin in Europe is an exciting patchwork of selection as populations disperse into northern latitudes,” Jablonski says. “This data is fun because it shows how much recent evolution has taken place.”

            Anthropological geneticist George Perry, also of Penn State, notes that the work reveals how an individual’s genetic potential is shaped by their diet and adaptation to their habitat. “We’re getting a much more detailed picture now of how selection works”

          • Scout Wellsrain

            (((Joo))) say what? NO ONE IS LISTENING TO YOUR LIES.

          • Fatima Shorten

            This is so scary! And people think racism is dead?!!! This lynching lesson is what Im teaching today and I want my students to be so different than ya’ll. To read these comments is to understand ignorance at its lowest level

          • Anthony

            No one can compete with the White Portfolio of Diseases, Holocausts, Global Theft, Imperialism, Colonialism, Slavery, Cultural Deprivation, Terrorist Acts, Pedophilia, Serial Killing and Deadly Racist Groups. Whites have brought Disease and Death to unsuspecting, unarmed people. Some of their more Horrific Holocaust and Human Exterminations: Africa,Over 30 Million murders in the Congo under King Leopold of Belgium, Every Country in Africa has suffered Deaths in the millions and Slavery. European interference is currently causing the Rich Continent of Africa to be raped of Gold Oil Diamonds, GOD for Whites. Over 100 million lives lost in the Americas, Untold Millions Killed in Vietnam, Laos, Burma, Cambodia, Nepal, Korea, Tibet, Japan, China, India 1.5-1.8 Billion in 250-300 years. Philippines over 1 million, Papua New Guinea 2.1 Million, The South Pacific was ravaged into the millions. Australians suffered 22 separate genocides and lost 90% of their population. Their children were stolen for sexual abuse and to end their race. New Zealand lost 40% of it’s population, No Pureblood Tasmanians survive. Every island in the South Pacific suffered the same fate. No Race on Earth has Escaped their Brutality.

          • Anthony

            Pure evil,you can see the evil in their eyes,now they want to call blacks racist for saying BLM,if we don’t say BLM,who is going to say it,not white folks,they want blacks to be quiet and accept whatever treatment they issue out,those days are over, EYE FOR AN EYE IS HOW I SEE IT,they always talk about the black on black murders in Chicago,but they never say anything about the problem of white on white murders at 84%,why are they killing each other ,all that white privilege and the albinos are murdering each other.
            Do not judge, or you too will be judged,For in the same way you judge others, you will be judged, and with the measure you use, it will be measured to you.

            Why do you look at the speck of sawdust in your brother’s eye and pay no attention to the plank in your own eye? How can you say to your brother, ‘Let me take the speck out of your eye,’ when all the time there is a plank in your own eye? 5You hypocrite, first take the plank out of your own eye, and then you will see clearly to remove the speck from your brother’s eye.

        • Anthony

          You wish,that why white women loves black men,u want a big black one in your ×ss uh.

          • Scout Wellsrain

            Only fat landwhales we won’t touch will burn coal. You can have our trash. Meanwhile, your hottest and most intelligent- meaning your yellow wenches, the ones who don’t look and act like gorillas- flock to us. Because whites are MEN, and blacks are BOYS who aren’t even responsible enough to RAISE THEIR OWN CHILLUNS. Evil white tax money does that cuz they ain’t no black MEN… just little boys. Which is why the best black women want nothing to do with you, foo! When a “beeyotch” turn up pregnant no black BOY DINDU NUFFIN

        • Anthony

          TAKE HEED

          The white “race” is in reality nothing more than an inbred sub-race, and an aberration of the hyman species. All whites are genetically defective and inferior by definition. The white man makes up less than 10% of the world’s population. It is impossible for the white man to be the “supreme race” of the human species. Their numbers simply do not support their claim. The white man is the true minority on the planet. The white man’s pale “pigment” is inherited from his albino progenitors. This is the reason the white man cannot point to any other single natural lineage to explain his ancestry (unlike all the other people in the world). If not the black man in Africa, whence did the white man come?

          The “dark-freckled pigmentation” commonly found on the white man’s skin is a vestigial indicator of his true ancestor: the black man. No species on this planet is truly white unless the MAJORITY of that species is white. The vast majority of man are people of color. The white man is singular in his bizarre appearance. To put it concisely, the very condition of being white constitutes a defective anomaly and, consequently, is indicative of species inferiority. Hence, the white man is marked. The white man despises the black metal because the white man knows he himself can never be anything other than a lesser man (the white man is a defect). Again, the white man is marked. The white man has contributed to his own genetic deficiencies through his history of inbreeding. Fact: if you closely observe enough whites, you will notice that there are those with one green and one blue eye. There are too many known cases of the occurrence for them to be considered mere random mutations.) As a result of their inbreeding and other genetic defects, all whites are thieves, liars, sociopaths, psychopaths, etc. Because the white man is inherently psychotic, it is imperative that you teach your children to NEVER trust a white man (or woman). Before too long, the white man will get the message that he is persona-non-grata in this world, and he will eventually die off.

          The white man has lied to you. If the white man were GOD’s prized creation, would HE have given HIS prized creation such poor covering in lieu of protection, i.e., the white man’s inadequate pale flesh? (Would you have done that?) Once again, the insidious white man is marked. The only god the white man obeys is god satan. satan is the white man’s true god. The white man’s sole purpose in this world is to function as a recruiter for satan. And satan richly rewards his followers. GOD would not reward you in so trite a way for doing what HE commands you to do. Your non-tangible rewards from GOD are the avoidance of the consequences that would befall you should you fail to follow GOD’s command. (And not those commands set in the white man’s make-believe bible) Would GOD sanction or allow such horrid conditions as war, poverty, organized pedophilia (the catholic church), incest, intentional.

          • Anthony

            King James Bible
            The leprosy therefore of Naaman shall cleave unto thee, and unto thy seed for ever. And he went out from his presence a leper as white as snow.

          • Scout Wellsrain

            That’s why they own the world, amd have created the greatest art and science and medicine ever seen. I get ya.

          • Scout Wellsrain

            Can you write, monkey, or just repost what some other mulatto monkey used the few white GOD genes he has to spout off to fool the darker apes?

          • Moon Berry

            White monkey. No stfu like a good white monkey you’ve been trained to be you dirty punk.

          • Scout Wellsrain

            Your mother sheboon with a strap-on made the only punk around here by fuggin yo blagass. Then you took it to county and showed all the other down-low brothers how to do a tiny dindudik bukakke on dem flappin lips, chimPUNK.

          • Scout Wellsrain

            MOONCRICKET SAY WHA

        • Moon Berry

          What an ignorant jackass. Too bad your trash of a mother didn’t flush you.

          • Scout Wellsrain

            Like all monkeys, too “ignorant” to know their own ignorance. I call it “nignorance”, when blacks use the word “ignorant” over and over, not knowing what it means. As “fo muh momma”, I don’t bone her like you do yours. She do you cuz yo daddy ran off leavin her yo dumb trickbaby ass

        • Blackaveli

          More cracker fantasies… cracksers are Egyptians lmaoo..,, crackers are from South Africa lmao…. cracker can have dark or brown skin lmao… cracker are from Europe and you’re origin is the smelly caves lmao… this is all facts lmaoooo. You can not stay in the sun you have no melanin lmao. The sun is killing you lmao.

    • Blackaveli

      Try it now you’ll be a dead cave man!

  • Jeb Stuart

    This is the way thugs, black or white, should be dealt with today.

    • Scout Wellsrain

      Kill all kneeguhs

  • Born a King

    It said what has happened to the true children of Israel, we are going through Jacob trouble Jeremiah 30:7. All the people who did this were smelly Jewish People a.k.a Khazars who are the synagogue of satan rev 2:9

  • Born a King

    I mean sad, but it was jewish people who founded America, there amalek from the seed of edom. The so called Europeans are know are edomites because they are shades of red. And they are know to have bad body ordor.

    • Sarah Stallworth

      Yesss!

  • anonymous

    Oh my god!!! Didn’t realize that racism here today was still that bad! I’ve seen it all now, all the “nigger” calling on this page is unbelievable and embarrassing! All I can say is….the devil is real! We’re surrounded by some who are just straight EVIL!!! It almost makes me laugh to hear the ignorance and lack of intelligence on this page. You’re funny dude! You know who you are. Thank you for adding to my intertainment for today, it makes me laugh and gives me plenty of satisfaction to know that white people can be pretty dumb and ignorant as well…not just black people or any other race at that, because you’ve just proved yourself to be more than capable. Because of this type of hatred, america will never gain, this is part of the reason why america is going to shit!….but whatever, I’ve said my peace so I’m done.

  • Kayleigh Renee Wilson

    I am so confused. You all read this hate and choose to breed more hate? Whites are not better than blacks. Blacks are not better than whites. We are all people. We all deserve equal rights. Base your desicions on the choices each man or woman makes, regardles of their skin color.

  • Adaj Parr

    White Woman love big black penis inside their vaginas. The small dick southern racist white man can’t hit the bottom of the white woman’s vagina. This is the main reason why racist white man do not like black men. White woman consistently seek out black men in order to be satisfied sexually. It’s all about the big black penis in demand by the white frigid woman because the racist white man has very small penis. Like Donald Trump.